Saturday, May 23, 2020

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd ) - 906 Words

ADHD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, also known as ADD, is a common disability with an estimated affected population of 17 million in the United States (Amen XV). The disorder mainly results in a lost of focus due to low brain activity leading not only to learning disabilities, but also to numerous social problems such as relationship breakups, job failures, and drugs or alcohol abuse. Medical experts consider genetics, head injury, toxic exposure, and poor diet to be the primary causes of ADHD. Although a significant number of people are unaware, there are remedies for ADHD; it can be effectively treated with medication, behavior therapy, and proper diet. First of all, people who suffer from ADHD are often â€Å"hyperactive, restless, impulsive, disorganized, distractible, and trouble concentrating† (Armen 77). Hence, ADHD patients have difficulty focusing on most tasks in school or works, and have trouble completing projects. Specifically, â€Å"35 percent never finishes high school, 52 percent of untreated teens and adults abuse drugs or alcohol† (Armen). The disorder was originally considered as a behavioral problem in children; however, today, it is also a serious problem in adults. The main cause of ADHD is still unclear, yet doctors believe that a child can inherit this disorder from their parents making genetics the most likely cause of ADHD. Daniel G. Amen, M.D., an award winning child and adult psychiatrist,and brain disorder specialist, claims that from hisShow MoreRelatedAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )1710 Words   |  7 Pages Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or ADHD which is often referred to as childhood hyperactivity, it s a severe and chronic disorder for children. It is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders, and affects 3% to 5% of the school-age population. Boys outnumber girls three or more to one. Children with ADHD can experience many behavioral difficulties that often manifest in the form of inattention, being easily distracted, being impulsive, and hyperactivity. As a result, children withRead MoreAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )1744 Words   |  7 PagesI chose to research Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, otherwise known as ADHD, in culture and child development for the following reasons. First, it is important as educators that we understand the difference between restlessness and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children. Secondly, we must be conscious of the origins of ADHD, how to recognize it, the myths and prejudices against it, and kn ow the most appropriate intervention strategies. Educators must also realize that evenRead MoreAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )1495 Words   |  6 Pagesoccasionally forget to do their homework, get fidgety when they lose interest in an activity, or speak out of turn during class time. But inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are all signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a neuro-development disorder and can start as early as three years old throughout adulthood. People with ADHD have trouble focusing on tasks and activities, this can have a negative impact on the individual in different ways. It can make the child feelRead MoreAttention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )1699 Words   |  7 Pageshas had some difficulty sitting still, paying attention and even controlling impulsive behavior once or twice in our life. For some people, however, the problems that occur slim to none in our life occurs in the lives of theirs every day and interfere with every aspect of their life inclusive of home, academic, social and work. . The interaction of core ADHD symptoms with co-morbid problems and neuropsychological deï ¬ cits suggests that individuals with ADHD are likely to experience problems in academicRead MoreAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)1259 Words   |  5 PagesAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly found disorder in children in the United States. Statistics show that the male to female ratio for children with ADHD is eight to one. 4.4 million Children between the ages four to seventeen have diagnosed with ADHD (Cheng Tina L et al.). African American children are at a higher risk for having ADHD. Caucasian children are least likely to have ADHD. 2.5 million children receive medication for ADHD, but African American childrenRead MoreAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )1002 Words   |  5 PagesAbstract There are many disorders that are first diagnosed whether it is during infancy, childhood or adolescence. The disorders range from intellectual disabilities, learning disabilities, communication disorders, all the way through to elimination disorders. Attention-deficit and disruptive disorders are the most common. All including AD/HD, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and unspecified disruptive disorder. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most commonRead MoreAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )1058 Words   |  5 Pagesfrom disorders such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (or ADHD/ADD.) While much is known about these disorders and how they affect the education of children, there are only a few known methods that consistently help an affected child focus and target in on what they need to learn. Medication for children With Attention Deficit (Hyperactivity) Disorder must be used as an aid to help the affected child to focus and comprehend information being presented to them. Children with Attention DeficitRead MoreAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )978 Words   |  4 Pagesin diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children since the 21st century. Per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention the increase has been seen as a difference from, â€Å"7.8% in 2003 to 9.5% in 2007 and to 11.0% in 2011† (p. 4). Many questions arise concerning why the numbers are on the rise, especially when boys are 7.6 percent more likely than girls to receive the diagnosis of ADHD. When should the line be drawn between a disorder, and hyperactivity that comes withRead MoreAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )1552 Words   |  7 PagesATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER Seth was a second grader at West Elementary. He constantly got reprimanded by his teachers for not paying attention in class. He could not understand the information given to him during the school day. He thought he was stupid and useless. But he was not. His parents got him tested by a doctor for ADHD. He is one of many kids in the United States who have been recognized as having it. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a major issue in the educationRead MoreAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd ) Essay700 Words   |  3 PagesWhat is ADHD? Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects almost 10% of American children between 13 and 18 years old, as well as 4% of U.S. adults over 18. Only a licensed mental health professional can provide an ADHD diagnosis, after a thorough evaluation. ADHD has three primary characteristics: Inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Inattentive: Are effortlessly distracted, fail to catch details, are forgetful, and regularly switch activities. Find it difficult to focus

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Essay about Reverend Ambrose and Grant Wiggins in A...

Suffering through the horrors of racism, black Americans appear to have no chance of progression in society. Generation after generation of being uneducated and treated like animals has left the black community in shambles, and thinking they are not as good as the whites. In the 1940s it was difficult to find a black man who could read and write. The black mans illiteracy caused them to believe that they were less civilized than the whites. In Ernest Gaines A Lesson Before Dying, we are introduced to Jefferson, an uneducated, average black man who has been wrongly accused of a murder. Convinced that he is an animal, Jefferson is going to be taught by Reverend Ambrose and Grant Wiggins, the plantation schoolteacher, that he is†¦show more content†¦When Grant says in conversation to Ambrose, I dont owe anybody anything(Gaines 216), it becomes evident that Grant has gained the feeling that he does not need to do anything to improve the community, but just wants to have not hing to do with it. This is in contrast with the reverends feeling the need to save people souls so they can have eternal happiness. Grant and Reverend Ambrose have different perspectives of the world. Grant uses his education to see the world as it really is, but Reverend Ambrose on the other hand uses his knowledge of faith to cover the world of racism up and lives knowing that God is watching over him. When Grant says, No I dont believe in it [heaven](Gaines 217), we see that Grant believes that the only chance he has at living is his present life, racial persecution. Grant feels that since this racially prejudice world is all he will ever have a chance in, he wants to get away from it. By Ambroses saying, Me, Im found(Gaines 217) it becomes clear that he believes that he is saved and will go to heaven. He feels no need to seek a better life, because he knows he has one waiting for him in heaven. This assurance makes it easier to live and allows him to believe his faith is more important than Grants college education. When Grant says, I need to go someplace where I feel Im living. I dont want to spe nd the rest of my life teaching school in a plantation church.(Gaines 29), we can see that Grant isShow MoreRelatedA Lesson Before Dying - Lessons Learnt Before Jeffersons Demise1095 Words   |  5 PagesFormal Essay: A Lesson before Dying Exactly what lessons are learnt, and by whom, before Jefferson is executed? There are, in fact, numerous lessons learnt throughout the novel A Lesson Before Dying and they are learnt by a multitude of different characters. A significant number of characters throughout the book gradually evolve whilst story unfolds with this gradient of change emphasised in Jefferson, Grant Wiggins and the deputy, Paul. The lessons substantiate themselves in the words andRead MoreA Lesson Before Dying By Ernest J. Gaines1640 Words   |  7 PagesThe definition of what it means to be a human or a man, is a topic that is has been and is often discussed all over the world today. In the novel A Lesson Before Dying by Ernest J. Gaines, Gaines breaks down the meaning of what it means to be a man thought a character named Grant Wiggins. Grant Wiggins is the main character of the novel and is a very educated African-American man who is also a teacher at a local church in the town. He is trying to define and understand the concept of what it meansRead MoreEssay on A Lesson before Dyi ng730 Words   |  3 Pagespeople we interact with as well. In Ernest J. Gaines novel, A Lesson Before Dying, it is easy to see how religion impacts the community. In a small community such as this novel depicts, religion is the driving force behind nearly every decision made in the story and can be justified solely on the individuals values. It is interesting to view religion as the most visible consistency in the novel when the main character, Grant Wiggins, is himself an atheist. Although he himself does not believeRead MoreCompare And Contrast A Lesson Before Dying And Into The Wild1696 Words   |  7 PagesCompare and Contrast Summer Essay â€Å"A Lesson Before Dying† and â€Å"Into The Wild† are both books that defy the expected, tackle tough obstacles, and face the physical and mental extremes of life. Beginning with â€Å"Into The Wild†, Jon Krakauer leads us on a rich and insightful tour through the brash and lucid life of Chris McCandless. Followed by a well thought out, fiction novel featuring a sticky situation in a small Cajun community, â€Å"A Lesson Before Dying†, by Ernest J. Gaines. This split, self chosenRead MoreA Lesson Before Dying Summary Notes1827 Words   |  8 PagesCorinne Murdock Nolan AP Lit 10 August 2015 A Lesson Before Dying Summary Notes Title of Book †¢ Entire novel about a teacher trying to teach a man named Jefferson that he is a man, not a hog, before he is executed. †¢ It was important for Jefferson’s caretaker, Miss Emma, and the entire black community that he dies as a man- proud and brave. Author- Ernest J. Gaines †¢ Born in 1933 in Oscar, Louisiana †¢ Author and educator †¢ Wrote several books- Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman discusses periodRead MoreEssay on A Lesson Before Dying Major Works Data Sheet4251 Words   |  18 Pagesï » ¿Data Sheet – English 1 Honors Block: 1AB Date: 4/27/13 Title: A Lesson Before Dying Author: Ernest J. Gaines Genre: Historical Fiction Title Associations or Predictions: Given the title, A Lesson Before Dying, we can infer and predict that a character in the book will die. Also, we can predict that before they die, they will learn something, probably a valuable lesson Biographical Information about the author: Ernest J. Gaines was born in Oscar, Louisiana in 1933. He was bornRead MoreA Lesson Before Dying By Ernst J. Gaines1245 Words   |  5 Pagesapparent, was in the United States, specifically in the South. Slavery can be seen as one of the United State’s negative times in history. Slaves were treated poorly and were considered inferior to white Americans or white people in general. In â€Å"A Lesson Before Dying† by Ernst J. Gaines, the theme of racial discrimination is prevalent due to the institution of slavery and this discrimination leads to degrading of people, labeling, name-calling, and segregation within the society. Slavery opened the doorRead MoreA Lesson Before Dying By Ernest J. Gaines1321 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"You don’t get to choose how you’re going to die and when, you can only decide how you are going to live†. (Joan Baez). In the novel A Lesson Before Dying, written by Ernest J. Gaines, Jefferson doesn’t get to choose how and when he’s going to die, but he learns valuable lessons from Grant about how to live the rest of his life. This novel takes place in Bayonne, Louisiana, in the late 1940s. Jefferson is a twenty-one-year-old uneducated black man, who is accused of a robbery and murder that he didRead MoreWhat Good Can Might Come From Suffering?2195 Words   |  9 Pagessuffering walks right along side with us to redeem the long road of darkness it causes to shedding some light on the walkway. Sometimes the act of an individual’s sufferings can be another person’s redemption or salvation. Better said, in A Lesson Before Dying, Jef ferson, a twenty-one year black male, is condemned to the electric chair after being innocently involved in an armed robbery. Although the imaginable suffering of Jefferson can already be seen, his lawyer calls him a hog in front of theRead MoreRacism In A Lesson Before Dying Essay1978 Words   |  8 Pagesaccused of murdering and robbing a liquor store and is simply profiled because of his skin color.â€Å" Gentlemen of the jury, be merciful. For God’s sake, be merciful. He is innocent of all charges brought against him.† ( Gaines 8.) The book A Lesson Before Dying, shows an overwhelming amount of racism, with the use of the â€Å"n† word in a derogatory form towards African Americans, but these kids don t face racism just in the classroom, it was an everyday thing for an African American back then to encounter

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Web Design Report Free Essays

string(38) " and I also used Google image search\." | Coursework 1 Website Report | Diarmuid Bogner / B00614798| | Dr Hui Wang Dr Hui Wang Contents Page Introduction____________________________________________________________ pages 3 -4 Analysis_______________________________________________________________ pages 5 – 6 System Design_________________________________________________________ pages 7 – 11 Implementation_______________________________________________________ pages 12 – 16 Conclusion___________________________________________________________ pages 17 – 21 Appendices______________________________________________________________ page 21 Introduction Purpose The purpose of this website was for a web development based company showcase the web sites they have created, the services they offer, help and support for new and old clients and to display contact information. Another purpose for creating this website was to help increase the amount of clients that the web development company was getting. Creating this website also allowed me as a beginner web developer to further develop the skills that I have already acquired such as XHTML and CSS. We will write a custom essay sample on Web Design Report or any similar topic only for you Order Now Organisation and Function of the Website The website I created is organized into several pages. Each page was named with an appropriate name to correspond with the information that was viewed on that page. For example the contact page was named â€Å"contatct. html†. This easily allows me to identify which page I was currently working on and would help if I had to make any changes or updates in the future. The website is made up with 15 different pages. In my website directory there is also a CSS file called style. css. This file contains all the style information on my website for example the background colour or the text font, size and colour. Naming the . ss file â€Å"style† again would help me or anyone else having to edit the file knows what the purpose of the file is. The website layout follows the standard top to bottom organization. The website has a logo at the top, and then below is the navigation which is easy located by visitor so they can easily navigate around the website. The function of the navigation bar is to create links between different pages of the website. For example clicking on the â€Å"About† link will bring you to the about page. There are also links on the links page which bring the user to external pages on other websites. Outline of Information to Be Included In the Report This report will contain quite a large amount of information. Below I will briefly outline the information included in the report: Introduction – In the introduction section of the report I will explain the purpose of the website I created, the organisation and the function of the website which basically means how the website works. Analysis – In the analysis section of this report I explain what the target users are and what they require from my website. The report will also contain a data collection which is where I sourced all my information to create the website. System Design – The system design will contain an outline design of each page that will be created for the website and the rationale. Also this area will contain all the links of the pages and the type of information that has to be included on each of these pages. Implementation – In this section the report there will be screen dumps of each page and I will explain the main features of each page. Also I will have a description of how my main features where added to the website. Conclusion – the conclusion section of the report will contain a complete evaluation of the website, and if I feel that my finished website has meet all the user requirements and how I have met them. I will review what went well and what didn’t go as well as expected when designing and implementing my website. Also I will include some ideas that I think my make an improvement to my website. Appendices – The appendices section will contain any references that were used throughout the report, design and implementation of the website. Analysis Target Users and their Requirements The target users for my website can be anyone. But the main focus is for users that are interested in obtaining a website for their personal use or for a business. The website has requirements that I need to insure that I meet them all. Requirements * Clear layout website for easy browsing – The website must be made up with a simple, effective a clear layout and not seem confusing. * Easy functionality – Users on the website must be able to use the functions of the website with ease. * Appealing colour scheme/template – The colour scheme and the template/layout need to be appealing using bright colours and nice imagery. Corresponding information – The information on the website needs to be relevant to the website, for example information about football would not be relevant to a web development organisation. * Follow the HCI guidelines – The website needs to strictly follow the Human Computer Interaction guidelines. For example I need to take into c onsideration that some visitors on my website maybe colour blind so using colours that users can see clearly wither colour blind or not. * Easy to update and maintain – The website needs to allow easy maintain and update when needed. To achieve this using proper indenting and comments on the code will help me to find areas of the code that need updated. * User friendly – I need to make sure that the website is user friendly and that the users browsing my website can easily navigate around the site and can read the information that my website displays. * Compatible – Making the website compatible with all browsers is a requirement. This is because if one user is viewing the page using Mozilla Firefox another user using internet explorer may see the website differently and this could affect the users overall experience of the website. Data Collection All of the information I used for my website was written by me, I did however use the internet for some information such as my images, icons and links. For my icons and images I used a website called http://www. iconfinder. com/ and I also used Google image search. You read "Web Design Report" in category "Papers" For some of the definitions on my â€Å"Links† page I searched Google, and at the top of the search results page a definition appeared. Throughout writing my CSS code I used http://www. w3schools. com/ as a reference for certain CSS techniques such as creating my website background. Outline of Page Designs I found that using text boxes in Microsoft Word was a great way for me to design the layout of each page on my website. You can see below how I achieved this. Logo created using Adobe Photoshop Logo created using Adobe Photoshop Homepage Navigation Bar Navigation Bar Future Designs Affordable Web Development Future Designs Affordable Web Development Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Content Area (this area is used to display the main text and images for the users to read and view. Content Area (this area is used to display the main text and images for the users to read and view. Button used for users to request quote Button used for users to request quote Links to pages on website Links to pages on website â€Å"Get quote† â€Å"Get quote† Footer Navigation Bar Footer Navigation Bar Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Logo created using Adobe Photoshop Logo created using Adobe Photoshop About Navigation Bar Navigation Bar Future Designs Affordable Web Development Future Designs Affordable Web Development Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s About Content Area (this area is used to display the main text and images for the users to read and view. About Content Area (this area is used to display the main text and images for the users to read and view. Relevant image for page. Relevant image for page. Links to pages on website Links to pages on website Footer Navigation Bar Footer Navigation Bar Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Logo created using Adobe Photoshop Logo created using Adobe Photoshop Services Navigation Bar Navigation Bar Future Designs Affordable Web Development Future Designs Affordable Web Development Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Services Services Icons to represent a service Icons to represent a service Icons to represent a service Icons to represent a service Icons to represent a service Icons to represent a service Links to pages on website Links to pages on website Icons to represent a service Icons to represent a service Icons to represent a service Icons to represent a service Icons to represent a service Icons to represent a service Footer Navigation Bar Footer Navigation Bar Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Logo created using Adobe Photoshop Logo created using Adobe Photoshop Portfolio Navigation Bar Navigation Bar Future Designs Affordable Web Development Future Designs Affordable Web Development Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Portfolio Portfolio Thumbnail image of previous designed website. Thumbnail image of previous designed website. Links to pages on website Links to pages on website Thumbnail image of previous designed website. Thumbnail image of previous designed website. Thumbnail image of previous designed website. Thumbnail image of previous designed website. Footer Navigation Bar Footer Navigation Bar Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Logo created using Adobe Photoshop Logo created using Adobe Photoshop Contact Navigation Bar Navigation Bar Future Designs Affordable Web Development Future Designs Affordable Web Development Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Image of Office Image of Office Contact Contact Content Area Contact form, and information such as the address and telephone number will be shown. Content Area Contact form, and information such as the address and telephone number will be shown. Links to pages on website Links to pages on website Google Map of Office Google Map of Office Footer Navigation Bar Footer Navigation Bar Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Logo created using Adobe Photoshop Logo created using Adobe Photoshop Links Navigation Bar Navigation Bar Future Designs Affordable Web Development Future Designs Affordable Web Development Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Links Links Link description Link description Link Icon Link Icon Links to pages on website Links to pages on website Link description Link description Link Icon Link Icon Link description Link description Link Icon Link Icon Footer Navigation Bar Footer Navigation Bar Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s FAQ’s Logo created using Adobe Photoshop Logo created using Adobe Photoshop Navigation Bar Navigation Bar Future Designs Affordable Web Development Future Designs Affordable Web Development Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s FAQ’s FAQ’s Content Area Frequent questions and answers to them will be viewable on this area. Content Area Frequent questions and answers to them will be viewable on this area. Links to pages on website Links to pages on website Footer Navigation Bar Footer Navigation Bar Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Links of the Pages (Site Map) This is the logo I created using Adobe Photoshop and various techniques for the desired effect. This is the logo I created using Adobe Photoshop and various techniques for the desired effect. Implementation Navigation links, when the mouse cursor is over the top of the link it changes to a lighter shade of grey. Navigation links, when the mouse cursor is over the top of the link it changes to a lighter shade of grey. Home Footer navigation, again with the use of rollover links. Footer navigation, again with the use of rollover links. Background image, which I found on Google images. Background image, which I found on Google images. Rollover â€Å"Get Quote† button which becomes a lighter shade of grey when mouse is over it. Rollover â€Å"Get Quote† button which becomes a lighter shade of grey when mouse is over it. Form created with HTML to allow user to send an email for a quotation. Form created with HTML to allow user to send an email for a quotation. Quote Reset Button resets the data that has been inputted into the form. Reset Button resets the data that has been inputted into the form. Submit button sends the form. Submit button sends the form. About The text on this page has been formatted into bullet points to make it more user friendly and easy to read. The text on this page has been formatted into bullet points to make it more user friendly and easy to read. Image added to page to make it more appealing. Image added to page to make it more appealing. Icons to represent services that the company offer. This makes this page look a lot more appealing. Icons to represent services that the company offer. This makes this page look a lot more appealing. Services Thumbnails of web designs to add a gallery effect to the portfolio page. Thumbnails of web designs to add a gallery effect to the portfolio page. PortfolioLarge Image shown so users can clearly view the previous work. Large Image shown so users can clearly view the previous work. Portfolio Image Example Back button to return the user to the previous page. Back button to return the user to the previous page. After clicking on any of the previous design images will load a larger scale of the image with the exact same layout and format as the screenshot above. After clicking on any of the previous design images will load a larger scale of the image with the exact same layout and format as the screenshot above. Image of office added to page to give users an insight to what our offices is like. Image of office added to page to give users an insight to what our offices is like. Contact Contact information and a form added for users to complete and submit to website admin email. Contact information and a form added for users to complete and submit to website admin email. Google maps embedded to show users where the office is located on Google maps. Google maps embedded to show users where the office is located on Google maps. Links Information about each link. Information about each link. Icons added to represent the links, the icons are also clickable which brings you the new external link. E. g. clicking the YouTube icon brings user to youtube. om Icons added to represent the links, the icons are also clickable which brings you the new external link. E. g. clicking the YouTube icon brings user to youtube. com Questions and answers clearly formatted for easy reading, this is proof of following HCI guidelines. Questions and answers clearly formatted for easy reading, this is proof of following HCI guidelines. FAQ’s Button to bring user to continued su pport page. Button to bring user to continued support page. Help Support Form to request future help support. Again this form is emailed to the website administrator. Form to request future help support. Again this form is emailed to the website administrator. Conclusion Evaluation of Website I feel that my website has met all the user’s requirements. You can see evidence of each of the users requirements from the screenshots above. Below are all the requirments and how I felt that I have met them. * Clear layout website for easy browsing – My website has been made using a simple layout which only contains a header, navigation, content area and a footer navigation. The website is also easy to browse as I asked members of my family and friends to try and navigate around and they could do this with ease and no confusion. * Easy functionality – All of the functions that my website uses are all easy to use. For example the forms which the users complete to contact the website administrator are all very self-explanatory and users have no problem completing the form. * Appealing colour scheme/template – The colour scheme and the template that I have created is very appealing. Again I have got friends and family to try to use the website and they have all commented that it is very olourful. You can see evidence of this with the use of the background image and icons on different pages of the website. * Corresponding information – All of the information on the website corresponds to the type of the website that I created. * Follow the HCI guidelines – I have followed the HCI guidelines very strictly when creating this website . An example of this would be that the website does not use any colours that colour blind users may find difficulty viewing. * Easy to update and maintain – The layout created allows for easy updating and maintenance. For example if I wanted to add a new page to the website all that must be done is a copy of the page, delete the information that was copied, add new information to the page and add the page into the navigation bar. * User friendly – I find that my website is quite user friendly. The website is easy to use and the information is clear and users would have no problem reading and understanding the information. * Compatible – I have fully tested the website with a few of the most popular web browsers. You can see evidence of this below: Chrome Internet Explorer Mozilla Firefox As you can see from the above screenshots that the website displays correctly in all browsers so I have met the compatibility requirement. Review of Successes and Problems I found that my design was very successful. Creating the plan of the design was crucial in creating a fully functional website. I found that making a clear and an easy to follow plan allowed me to implement my website with very few issues and it gave me an insight to what the website would look like when completed and what look I was aiming for. Meeting the user requirements I thought would be a hard obstacle to overcome. I did a module in a computing course which solely focused on Human Computer Interaction This gave me the knowledge of HCI guidelines and ideas on how to follow them and how to stop barriers. Along with my knowledge and a full plan I was able to meet all the user requirements whilst overcoming HCI difficulties. The only thing that didn’t go to plan was the CSS code for my background. When attempting to add the background using CSS I could not get the desired look. The image kept stretching and as I added more content to the page the image repeated. After researching some more CSS online using W3schools. om I came up with the idea that the background should stay fixed and the rest of the page should scroll. This fix completely fixed this issue. The code I used is as follows: Ideas on Improvement Further Development After reviewing my website I have came up with areas that I could improve on and areas of the website that could be further developed. I found in my portfolio galler y when clicking on the image instead of having a text button â€Å"[Back to previous page]† I could have used a rollover button which users would have a lot less difficulty trying to find and also it would make the page more interactive for the user. Instead of having a text button on this page I could have either added a button or better added a support link on the navigation bar. This improvement also gave me an idea where I could further develop my â€Å"Continued Support† area by using a PHP help desk script which allowed users to register and they could write issues on tickets that are then viewed by administrators and support is given. Also adding a help chat room where clients can speak live with support staff. An example of this type of software that could be integrated is â€Å"oS Ticket† which is an open source software. http://osticket. com/ References: www. google. com/images www. w3schools. com http://www. iconfinder. com/ http://stackoverflow. com/questions/1150163/stretch-and-scale-a-css-image-in-the-background-with-css-only How to cite Web Design Report, Papers

Web Design Report Free Essays

string(38) " and I also used Google image search\." | Coursework 1 Website Report | Diarmuid Bogner / B00614798| | Dr Hui Wang Dr Hui Wang Contents Page Introduction____________________________________________________________ pages 3 -4 Analysis_______________________________________________________________ pages 5 – 6 System Design_________________________________________________________ pages 7 – 11 Implementation_______________________________________________________ pages 12 – 16 Conclusion___________________________________________________________ pages 17 – 21 Appendices______________________________________________________________ page 21 Introduction Purpose The purpose of this website was for a web development based company showcase the web sites they have created, the services they offer, help and support for new and old clients and to display contact information. Another purpose for creating this website was to help increase the amount of clients that the web development company was getting. Creating this website also allowed me as a beginner web developer to further develop the skills that I have already acquired such as XHTML and CSS. We will write a custom essay sample on Web Design Report or any similar topic only for you Order Now Organisation and Function of the Website The website I created is organized into several pages. Each page was named with an appropriate name to correspond with the information that was viewed on that page. For example the contact page was named â€Å"contatct. html†. This easily allows me to identify which page I was currently working on and would help if I had to make any changes or updates in the future. The website is made up with 15 different pages. In my website directory there is also a CSS file called style. css. This file contains all the style information on my website for example the background colour or the text font, size and colour. Naming the . ss file â€Å"style† again would help me or anyone else having to edit the file knows what the purpose of the file is. The website layout follows the standard top to bottom organization. The website has a logo at the top, and then below is the navigation which is easy located by visitor so they can easily navigate around the website. The function of the navigation bar is to create links between different pages of the website. For example clicking on the â€Å"About† link will bring you to the about page. There are also links on the links page which bring the user to external pages on other websites. Outline of Information to Be Included In the Report This report will contain quite a large amount of information. Below I will briefly outline the information included in the report: Introduction – In the introduction section of the report I will explain the purpose of the website I created, the organisation and the function of the website which basically means how the website works. Analysis – In the analysis section of this report I explain what the target users are and what they require from my website. The report will also contain a data collection which is where I sourced all my information to create the website. System Design – The system design will contain an outline design of each page that will be created for the website and the rationale. Also this area will contain all the links of the pages and the type of information that has to be included on each of these pages. Implementation – In this section the report there will be screen dumps of each page and I will explain the main features of each page. Also I will have a description of how my main features where added to the website. Conclusion – the conclusion section of the report will contain a complete evaluation of the website, and if I feel that my finished website has meet all the user requirements and how I have met them. I will review what went well and what didn’t go as well as expected when designing and implementing my website. Also I will include some ideas that I think my make an improvement to my website. Appendices – The appendices section will contain any references that were used throughout the report, design and implementation of the website. Analysis Target Users and their Requirements The target users for my website can be anyone. But the main focus is for users that are interested in obtaining a website for their personal use or for a business. The website has requirements that I need to insure that I meet them all. Requirements * Clear layout website for easy browsing – The website must be made up with a simple, effective a clear layout and not seem confusing. * Easy functionality – Users on the website must be able to use the functions of the website with ease. * Appealing colour scheme/template – The colour scheme and the template/layout need to be appealing using bright colours and nice imagery. Corresponding information – The information on the website needs to be relevant to the website, for example information about football would not be relevant to a web development organisation. * Follow the HCI guidelines – The website needs to strictly follow the Human Computer Interaction guidelines. For example I need to take into c onsideration that some visitors on my website maybe colour blind so using colours that users can see clearly wither colour blind or not. * Easy to update and maintain – The website needs to allow easy maintain and update when needed. To achieve this using proper indenting and comments on the code will help me to find areas of the code that need updated. * User friendly – I need to make sure that the website is user friendly and that the users browsing my website can easily navigate around the site and can read the information that my website displays. * Compatible – Making the website compatible with all browsers is a requirement. This is because if one user is viewing the page using Mozilla Firefox another user using internet explorer may see the website differently and this could affect the users overall experience of the website. Data Collection All of the information I used for my website was written by me, I did however use the internet for some information such as my images, icons and links. For my icons and images I used a website called http://www. iconfinder. com/ and I also used Google image search. You read "Web Design Report" in category "Papers" For some of the definitions on my â€Å"Links† page I searched Google, and at the top of the search results page a definition appeared. Throughout writing my CSS code I used http://www. w3schools. com/ as a reference for certain CSS techniques such as creating my website background. Outline of Page Designs I found that using text boxes in Microsoft Word was a great way for me to design the layout of each page on my website. You can see below how I achieved this. Logo created using Adobe Photoshop Logo created using Adobe Photoshop Homepage Navigation Bar Navigation Bar Future Designs Affordable Web Development Future Designs Affordable Web Development Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Content Area (this area is used to display the main text and images for the users to read and view. Content Area (this area is used to display the main text and images for the users to read and view. Button used for users to request quote Button used for users to request quote Links to pages on website Links to pages on website â€Å"Get quote† â€Å"Get quote† Footer Navigation Bar Footer Navigation Bar Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Logo created using Adobe Photoshop Logo created using Adobe Photoshop About Navigation Bar Navigation Bar Future Designs Affordable Web Development Future Designs Affordable Web Development Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s About Content Area (this area is used to display the main text and images for the users to read and view. About Content Area (this area is used to display the main text and images for the users to read and view. Relevant image for page. Relevant image for page. Links to pages on website Links to pages on website Footer Navigation Bar Footer Navigation Bar Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Logo created using Adobe Photoshop Logo created using Adobe Photoshop Services Navigation Bar Navigation Bar Future Designs Affordable Web Development Future Designs Affordable Web Development Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Services Services Icons to represent a service Icons to represent a service Icons to represent a service Icons to represent a service Icons to represent a service Icons to represent a service Links to pages on website Links to pages on website Icons to represent a service Icons to represent a service Icons to represent a service Icons to represent a service Icons to represent a service Icons to represent a service Footer Navigation Bar Footer Navigation Bar Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Logo created using Adobe Photoshop Logo created using Adobe Photoshop Portfolio Navigation Bar Navigation Bar Future Designs Affordable Web Development Future Designs Affordable Web Development Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Portfolio Portfolio Thumbnail image of previous designed website. Thumbnail image of previous designed website. Links to pages on website Links to pages on website Thumbnail image of previous designed website. Thumbnail image of previous designed website. Thumbnail image of previous designed website. Thumbnail image of previous designed website. Footer Navigation Bar Footer Navigation Bar Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Logo created using Adobe Photoshop Logo created using Adobe Photoshop Contact Navigation Bar Navigation Bar Future Designs Affordable Web Development Future Designs Affordable Web Development Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Image of Office Image of Office Contact Contact Content Area Contact form, and information such as the address and telephone number will be shown. Content Area Contact form, and information such as the address and telephone number will be shown. Links to pages on website Links to pages on website Google Map of Office Google Map of Office Footer Navigation Bar Footer Navigation Bar Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Logo created using Adobe Photoshop Logo created using Adobe Photoshop Links Navigation Bar Navigation Bar Future Designs Affordable Web Development Future Designs Affordable Web Development Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Links Links Link description Link description Link Icon Link Icon Links to pages on website Links to pages on website Link description Link description Link Icon Link Icon Link description Link description Link Icon Link Icon Footer Navigation Bar Footer Navigation Bar Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s FAQ’s Logo created using Adobe Photoshop Logo created using Adobe Photoshop Navigation Bar Navigation Bar Future Designs Affordable Web Development Future Designs Affordable Web Development Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s FAQ’s FAQ’s Content Area Frequent questions and answers to them will be viewable on this area. Content Area Frequent questions and answers to them will be viewable on this area. Links to pages on website Links to pages on website Footer Navigation Bar Footer Navigation Bar Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Home | About | Services |Portfolio | Contact | Links | Faq’s Links of the Pages (Site Map) This is the logo I created using Adobe Photoshop and various techniques for the desired effect. This is the logo I created using Adobe Photoshop and various techniques for the desired effect. Implementation Navigation links, when the mouse cursor is over the top of the link it changes to a lighter shade of grey. Navigation links, when the mouse cursor is over the top of the link it changes to a lighter shade of grey. Home Footer navigation, again with the use of rollover links. Footer navigation, again with the use of rollover links. Background image, which I found on Google images. Background image, which I found on Google images. Rollover â€Å"Get Quote† button which becomes a lighter shade of grey when mouse is over it. Rollover â€Å"Get Quote† button which becomes a lighter shade of grey when mouse is over it. Form created with HTML to allow user to send an email for a quotation. Form created with HTML to allow user to send an email for a quotation. Quote Reset Button resets the data that has been inputted into the form. Reset Button resets the data that has been inputted into the form. Submit button sends the form. Submit button sends the form. About The text on this page has been formatted into bullet points to make it more user friendly and easy to read. The text on this page has been formatted into bullet points to make it more user friendly and easy to read. Image added to page to make it more appealing. Image added to page to make it more appealing. Icons to represent services that the company offer. This makes this page look a lot more appealing. Icons to represent services that the company offer. This makes this page look a lot more appealing. Services Thumbnails of web designs to add a gallery effect to the portfolio page. Thumbnails of web designs to add a gallery effect to the portfolio page. PortfolioLarge Image shown so users can clearly view the previous work. Large Image shown so users can clearly view the previous work. Portfolio Image Example Back button to return the user to the previous page. Back button to return the user to the previous page. After clicking on any of the previous design images will load a larger scale of the image with the exact same layout and format as the screenshot above. After clicking on any of the previous design images will load a larger scale of the image with the exact same layout and format as the screenshot above. Image of office added to page to give users an insight to what our offices is like. Image of office added to page to give users an insight to what our offices is like. Contact Contact information and a form added for users to complete and submit to website admin email. Contact information and a form added for users to complete and submit to website admin email. Google maps embedded to show users where the office is located on Google maps. Google maps embedded to show users where the office is located on Google maps. Links Information about each link. Information about each link. Icons added to represent the links, the icons are also clickable which brings you the new external link. E. g. clicking the YouTube icon brings user to youtube. om Icons added to represent the links, the icons are also clickable which brings you the new external link. E. g. clicking the YouTube icon brings user to youtube. com Questions and answers clearly formatted for easy reading, this is proof of following HCI guidelines. Questions and answers clearly formatted for easy reading, this is proof of following HCI guidelines. FAQ’s Button to bring user to continued su pport page. Button to bring user to continued support page. Help Support Form to request future help support. Again this form is emailed to the website administrator. Form to request future help support. Again this form is emailed to the website administrator. Conclusion Evaluation of Website I feel that my website has met all the user’s requirements. You can see evidence of each of the users requirements from the screenshots above. Below are all the requirments and how I felt that I have met them. * Clear layout website for easy browsing – My website has been made using a simple layout which only contains a header, navigation, content area and a footer navigation. The website is also easy to browse as I asked members of my family and friends to try and navigate around and they could do this with ease and no confusion. * Easy functionality – All of the functions that my website uses are all easy to use. For example the forms which the users complete to contact the website administrator are all very self-explanatory and users have no problem completing the form. * Appealing colour scheme/template – The colour scheme and the template that I have created is very appealing. Again I have got friends and family to try to use the website and they have all commented that it is very olourful. You can see evidence of this with the use of the background image and icons on different pages of the website. * Corresponding information – All of the information on the website corresponds to the type of the website that I created. * Follow the HCI guidelines – I have followed the HCI guidelines very strictly when creating this website . An example of this would be that the website does not use any colours that colour blind users may find difficulty viewing. * Easy to update and maintain – The layout created allows for easy updating and maintenance. For example if I wanted to add a new page to the website all that must be done is a copy of the page, delete the information that was copied, add new information to the page and add the page into the navigation bar. * User friendly – I find that my website is quite user friendly. The website is easy to use and the information is clear and users would have no problem reading and understanding the information. * Compatible – I have fully tested the website with a few of the most popular web browsers. You can see evidence of this below: Chrome Internet Explorer Mozilla Firefox As you can see from the above screenshots that the website displays correctly in all browsers so I have met the compatibility requirement. Review of Successes and Problems I found that my design was very successful. Creating the plan of the design was crucial in creating a fully functional website. I found that making a clear and an easy to follow plan allowed me to implement my website with very few issues and it gave me an insight to what the website would look like when completed and what look I was aiming for. Meeting the user requirements I thought would be a hard obstacle to overcome. I did a module in a computing course which solely focused on Human Computer Interaction This gave me the knowledge of HCI guidelines and ideas on how to follow them and how to stop barriers. Along with my knowledge and a full plan I was able to meet all the user requirements whilst overcoming HCI difficulties. The only thing that didn’t go to plan was the CSS code for my background. When attempting to add the background using CSS I could not get the desired look. The image kept stretching and as I added more content to the page the image repeated. After researching some more CSS online using W3schools. om I came up with the idea that the background should stay fixed and the rest of the page should scroll. This fix completely fixed this issue. The code I used is as follows: Ideas on Improvement Further Development After reviewing my website I have came up with areas that I could improve on and areas of the website that could be further developed. I found in my portfolio galler y when clicking on the image instead of having a text button â€Å"[Back to previous page]† I could have used a rollover button which users would have a lot less difficulty trying to find and also it would make the page more interactive for the user. Instead of having a text button on this page I could have either added a button or better added a support link on the navigation bar. This improvement also gave me an idea where I could further develop my â€Å"Continued Support† area by using a PHP help desk script which allowed users to register and they could write issues on tickets that are then viewed by administrators and support is given. Also adding a help chat room where clients can speak live with support staff. An example of this type of software that could be integrated is â€Å"oS Ticket† which is an open source software. http://osticket. com/ References: www. google. com/images www. w3schools. com http://www. iconfinder. com/ http://stackoverflow. com/questions/1150163/stretch-and-scale-a-css-image-in-the-background-with-css-only How to cite Web Design Report, Papers

Friday, May 1, 2020

Implementing An Ethics Program In Workplace â€Myassignmenthelp.Com

Questions: What Kind Of An Organization Do You Work In? What Do You Work There As? Can You Tell A Little Bit More About Your Business Organization? Are You Are Of The Policies And Procedures Of Your Business Organization? What Influence Do These Policies Have On Your Professional Relationship With Your Peers, Superiors And Juniors? What Happens If Someone At The Firm Intentionally Or Unintentionally Breaches The Code? Are There Any Legal Implications To It? How Does The Company Introduce Or Inform The Employees With Its Codes And Policies? Does The Company Require Its Employees To Complete Continual Professional Education? Answers: Introduction In any profession, there is always a set of rules or guidelines that dictate acceptable behavior and a certain code of conduct in a professional or work environment. The idea is to gain insight into real life working environments and observe the implementation on professional code of conduct. A code of conduct outlines how to be professional(Thai Library Association (TLA), 2012). For the purpose of this report, I have interviewed a friend of mine, who works in an accounting firm as an accounting consultant. Answer- I work in an accounting firm as an accounting consultant. Answer 2- The firm has about 60 employees including consultants, articles as well as interns. We do have a separate IT department. Answer- Yes, there are certain policies and procedure in my business organization that need to be strictly adhered to. For example, we have very strict policies about the use of internet for work purposes and during office hours. Also, no employee or inter is allowed to use their own laptops. We are all provided workstations by the company. Answer 3- Our firm has a very positive environment. All of the employees are expected to behave professionally and keep personal differences aside. The policies and procedures set a guideline for us and help us in bettering ourselves as professionals and in turn, bettering our firm every single day. Even so, there is a certain level of informality when employees become friends. This however, doesnt come in the way of the level of professionalism at the firm. Answer 4- Whenever a new employee or an intern joins the firm, he or she is oriented and trained for the first couple of days to make him/her accustomed to the working environment in our firm. They are told about the rules and regulations that are to be followed and are therefore expected to follow the code. It is the interns who are more likely to unintentionally breach codes, either because they dont know or theyre not used to the working environment of the firm. More often than not, they are left off with a warning. Employees tend to stick to the codes. But of course, if someone is found intentionally breaching the code of conduct, especially in cases where there might be direct harm to the reputation, privacy or confidentiality of the firm, it can result the employee in losing his or her job. Personally, in my time at the firm, there has fortunately never been an incident where anything like this has happened. Although, there most definitely are going to be legal implications in addition to losing their job, if someone tries to intentionally harm the company in any way. Answer 5- Interns are, like I said, trained for the first couple of days and told orally about the work environment etc. However, employees upon joining the firm are required to sign a contract wherein all the codes and policies are mentioned. These include everything from how they are expected to dress up formally, to the use of mobile phones or internet and personal laptops during work hours, copying data from office computers, strict use of employee emails for office use etc. Answer 6- No, the company doesnt force its employees to have additional degrees. Of course, if an employee wishes to do so, he is free to pursue continual professional education provided it does not affect his or her work and contribution to the firm. Reflections upon the Interview In any professional working environment, it is essential that the employees and the employers alike follow a certain code of conduct and professionalism. This sets a guideline as to what general behavior is expected from any person that joins the firm. There are a number of similarities as well as differences in the expectation which are discussed below. Similarities Being an accounting firm, one expects the business organization to be professionally adept. As told in the interview, the firm follows a certain set of rules and guidelines and expects its employees to do the same. These guidelines are essential in creating a professional environment in a business organization and bring in order to an otherwise chaotic and haphazard work system. When employees adhere to codes and procedures, they increase their market value. Firms continue to offer competitive salaries to help attract proven candidates(Hays, 2017). The first similarity was the expectation of being aware of the company policies and guidelines. As a professional, it is the duty of any employee to be well aware of what constitutes their work environment and what codes, ethics and policies are followed in their workplace. The main drive of accounting ethics and ethical values is the upholding of professionalism and good practice(Murphy, 2016). Therefore, it becomes essential that an employee be professional and more importantly, aware of legal boundaries he may have as a professional as well as an individual. Another similarity was the expectation of the implications one might have to face upon breaching the code of the company. The first step in a code of conduct violation is the verbal warning(Bigelow, 2016). In most cases, if the damage is not too big, the employer will sit down and have a one-on-one conversation with the employee, explaining to him in detail what he should not have done and to be careful about it in case a similar situation arises in the future. This is similar to what was found in the interview. In case the employee keeps on repeatedly doing what hes told not to, the employer then issues a written warning and may even suspend the employee for a short period of time ranging from a few days to over a month. Even after this, if the employee is found indulging in flouting the codes and guidelines, his job contract is terminated and the employee is fired. In a professional environment, one should always be ready for legal implications in case he or she intentionally or repeatedly breaches a companys professional code of conduct, a legal action can be taken against them. As noted above from the interview, any employee intentionally harming the working and reputation of the company shall face legal consequences in addition to losing his job. Dissimilarities The only dissimilarity in expectations was the fact that the employs at the firm were not very affected in their personal relationships due to the professional conduct. This is a very rare sight. Most employees working together become friends and there are also scenarios where the workforce gets divided into groups of people who have similar backgrounds, race, castes etc. as they tend to be on the same level of understanding as their group mates. Very often such scenarios can create unwanted situations and hampered growth and not much progress is seen when it comes to working together as a team. It is critical to establish the professional and personal boundaries as early as possible and as clearly as possible(Alexander, 2015). When individuals learn how to manage their personal and professional lives, work environments see amazing growth and results. It is imperative that individuals in any business organization be taught how to have a balanced relationship with their peers, seniors and juniors and how to effectively solve any personal or professional issues that may arise. Theoretically speaking, The behavioral and ethical regulations of each job are the most important policies(Khani, 2014) in an organization. But in the real world, things might be different and among the agencies there still remain breaches of the Code(Sumretpholb, 2017). While employees may sometimes either be unaware or intentionally try to breach the companys policies, the company is always more alert and strict about its codes and procedures. The effectiveness of enforcement, however, may vary because of a code's specificity and because of limitations in sanctions available to the code's governing body(Perlis C, 2012). Reflections on what this means for me From a students perspective, theres a lot that can be learned from a real-world experience. There is a wide gap, an extreme difference from what one is taught in theory, and how things actually work in the real world. A competent professional accountant in business is an invaluable asset to the company(Len Jui, 2013). Therefore, it is imperative that the employee be aware of the companys codes and policies and act accordingly. It is also important that any business organization make its employees aware of the guidelines and expected behavior. There are a number of things to be noticed, understood and learned as to why having a set of policies and guidelines is important and how they help in the functioning of a business organization. These are all discussed in detail below. The first and most important thing for a person working in a company is to be aware of the policies and procedure which he or she is legally bound by. A business organizations policies and procedures are created to give direction and guidance to its workers. It defines behavior expectations for both management and other employees(Admin, 2009). It is essential as in any working environment, very often the employees as well as the managerial staff come across certain situations that are filled with confusion and ambiguity, and therefore require that immediate decision making. The issue of what is wrong or right comes up on a daily basis(Akadakpo Enofe, 2013) and it is because of this that many professional business organizations feel the need to set up policies that guide its workers and sets standards for professional behavior. A code of ethics is essential to a profession(Johnson, 2010). Along with setting guidelines, policies and codes also help in defining acceptable behavior at t he workplace. Formal dress code, use of the companys property, and respecting the privacy and confidentiality in a professional environment are all examples of the same. In addition to being aware of the policies, it is essential that workers in any business organization handle their personal and professional relationships with care. It becomes difficult to adhere to formalities when working with friends or when employees become friends. It also becomes difficult to give constructive feedback when personal relationships are given more importance. In a business organization, many people dont think strategically about how to cultivate meaningful connections(Clark, 2014). Therefore, it is important to have a conversation with your peers, seniors or juniors in order to have productivity in the business as well as manage personal relationships outside of the work environment. Business is personal, and relationships do matter(Goudreau, 2014). Another thing to notice is that if a companys policies are not taken seriously, an individual may end up losing their job. In addition to this there are also legal consequences that one might have to face. Two examples of breaches in a code include confidentiality and conflict of interest breaches(Kraft, 2015). An employee must never try to breach a companys codes and policies intentionally. Mistakes happen every now and then. But one should not intentionally hamper the working of an organization. Anyone who intentionally violates the code is guilty of a class A misdemeanor(Norman-Eady, 2005) and can be fined as much as $2000 in addition to being sent to prison. Companies and business organizations must also take it into their hands to ensure that their employees are well aware of the policies of the business. This involves communicating to the employees everything they need to know about the company before getting started. In some small business organizations, employees are given oral instructions as to how to get started, the rules to be followed, and things or behaviors that need to be avoided. Managers should be aware that individuals may require advice and guidance on regulatory questions(independent.co.uk, 2017). In most large scale business organizations, employees are made to sign contracts and given induction training and packages. The induction package may include a training manual, mission statement, work health and safety information( The State of Queensland 19952017, 2016). Some companies also provide, online training and one-on-one training sessions to get the employees accustomed to the companys working environment. Conclusion Professional practice in accounting has a lot of value. In theory, policies govern ones relationships with their fellow members and potential clients(pearson canada, 2012). In reality, it is not always the case. Not every single person working in an organization gives as much importance to its policies as the company does. This is wrong and must be aptly dealt with. Regulation of policies and procedures in a company enables one to refrain from such activities that may discredit to their profession(Siddiqui, 2016). It is essential for the people working in a firm to be aware of the companys policies, its code of conduct, and the overall working environment. Failing this, an employee as well as an employer could have a number of unwanted and negative implications ranging from a bad first impression on a client to losing ones job. It is not just the employees duty to be aware of the companys management, codes and policies but also the companys job to put in effort to train, teach and educate its employees about the same. Trust and transparency in conduct is ever more important(Goff, 2017). The implementation should be actively monitored( ICAEW 2017, 2017). In addition to this, there are always certain legal implications involved as well. A company can sue its employee if hes found intentionally breaching its policies and code of conduct. He or she may also be fined monetarily and be imprisoned. In conclusion, it is fair to say that one must practice professional code of conduct in his work environment, irrespective of his role or status in the organization. By following the companys policies, its employees as well as the employers show that they have respect towards the company as well as towards each other. Also, following the policies and codes result in a positive environment in the organization, which results in increased productivity, more efficiency and better environment overall. This also means that the people in the organization are capable of handling the problems that may arise in their work place in a smart way. A positive environment in the workplace results in growth, better focus on the job, timely delivery as well as better job satisfaction. References ICAEW 2017. (2017). Developing and implementing organisational codes of conduct. Retrieved september 19, 2017, from icaew.com: https://www.icaew.com/technical/ethics/ethics-in-practice/practice/developing-and-implementing-organisational-codes-of-conduct The State of Queensland 19952017. (2016, june 29). Implementing a code of conduct. Retrieved september 18, 2017, from Business Queensland: https://www.business.qld.gov.au/running-business/employing/taking-on-staff/staff-code-conduct/implementing Admin. (2009, december 5). The Importance of a Code of Conduct. Retrieved september 14, 2017, from Site logo: https://www.accountingweb.com/community-voice/blogs/admin/the-importance-of-a-code-of-conduct Akadakpo, B. A., Enofe, A. O. ( 2013). Impact of Accounting Ethics on the Practice of Accounting. IOSR Journal of Business and Management , 45-51. Alexander, S. (2015, october 15). How to Maintain Professional Relationships with Friends in the Workplace. Retrieved september 14, 2017, from geteverwise.com: https://www.geteverwise.com/career-success/how-to-maintain-professional-relationships-with-friends-in-the-workplace/ Bigelow, L. (2016). What Happens to an Employee if He Violated the Code of Conduct? Retrieved september 18, 2017, from https://smallbusiness.chron.com: https://smallbusiness.chron.com/happens-employee-violated-code-conduct-16118.html Clark, D. (2014, march 11). 4 Ways To Build Meaningful Business Relationships. Retrieved september 17, 2017, from forbes.com: https://www.forbes.com/sites/dorieclark/2014/03/11/4-ways-to-build-meaningful-business-relationships/#3260565456e8 Goff, D. (2017, february 24). Implementing an Ethics Program in the Workplace. Retrieved september 19, 2017, from KnowledgeLeader Blog: https://info.knowledgeleader.com/bid/165219/implementing-an-ethics-program-in-the-workplace Goudreau, J. (2014, march 14). Why Business Is Personal And Relationships Matter. Retrieved september 18, 2017, from businessinsider.in: https://www.businessinsider.in/Why-Business-Is-Personal-And-Relationships-Matter/articleshow/31968680.cms Hays. (2017, July). Accountancy Finance - Professional Practice. Retrieved september 13, 2017, from Hays Specialist Recruitment: https://www.hays.com.au/report/accountancy-finance---professional-practice-931 independent.co.uk. (2017). Code of Conduct. Retrieved september 19, 2017, from independent.co.uk: https://www.independent.co.uk/service/code-of-conduct-a6184241.html Johnson, C. N. (2010, march 18). Importance of Professional Ethical Codes. Retrieved september 16, 2017, from sites.google.com: https://sites.google.com/site/charityneavejohnson/education/webfolio/foundations-1/importance-of-professional-ethics Khani, H. (2014). The Role of Professional Ethics in Accounting and Audit. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences , 208-215. Kraft, D. (2015). Breach of Professional Ethics. Retrieved september 16, 2017, from Chron.com: https://work.chron.com/breach-professional-ethics-17344.html Len Jui, J. W. (2013, october 10). Roles and Importance of Professional Accountants in Business. Retrieved september 15, 2017, from International Federation of Accountants: https://www.ifac.org/news-events/2013-10/roles-and-importance-professional-accountants-business Murphy, B. (2016, august 31). Professional competence and continuing professional development in accounting: professional practice vs. non-practice. Retrieved september 16, 2017, from Taylor and Francis Online: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09639284.2016.1218780?scroll=topneedAccess=true Norman-Eady, S. (2005, april 29). Penalties for Ethics Violation. Retrieved september 18, 2017, from www.cga.ct.gov: https://www.cga.ct.gov/2005/rpt/2005-R-0445.htm pearson canada. (2012). Perlis C, S. N. (2012, march 30). Role of professional organizations in setting and enforcing ethical norms. Retrieved september 17, 2017, from ncbi.nlm.nih.gov: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22330658 Siddiqui, F. (2016, july 30). The Importance Of Ethics In Your Professional Life. Retrieved september 18, 2017, from https://fareedsiddiqui.expertscolumn.com: https://fareedsiddiqui.expertscolumn.com/article/importance-ethics-your-professional-life Sumretpholb, S. C. (2017). Implementation of the code of professional ethics for Thai civil servants. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences , 129-135. Thai Library Association (TLA). (2012, october 21). The importance of our professional values. Retrieved september 19, 2017, from IFLA: https://www.ifla.org/node/5713

Sunday, March 22, 2020

Mini-Case Facing Termination Essay Sample free essay sample

Why do you believe you made these errors? Please get down this instance treatment from the point of position that you are the chief character – that is you are the Vice President of Marketing. So you may get down the treatment get downing with â€Å"I am to fault for the current province of personal businesss because I did non understand †¦ † ( fill in why you are to fault. what did you non make and what did you make that helped make the current state of affairs ) I am to fault for the current province of personal businesss because I did non make plenty trial and deep probe for the new package plan. Honestly. I don’t cognize this package truly good. All I did merely bosom about some overstate characteristics from attender at the booth. read some stuff about it and called a twosome of friends who had installed it in their organisations. We will write a custom essay sample on Mini-Case Facing Termination Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I even don’t cognize what is defect of this package and what should I make if the package failed to operation. I didn’t fix any program B for this elephantine plan. Blindness and rawness make me didn’t do adequate readying work. In add-on. I don’t have adequate protagonist or assistant. My co-worker. even when Jenny done to put in the package. seem non interested in this plan and really few people entree to seek. Confronting this negative attitude. I merely sit at that place and expect they will see the advantages of new gross revenues procedure alternatively of seek difficult to allow my co-worker cognize more about the new package. I was rely on IT excessively much and disregard how of import communicating with people. I supposed to larn a batch from Tom who is an first-class salesman and has broad societal web. I was merely believing he is old-fashion people but didn’t notice why he could be frailty president how was he persuade people. Besides. even myself. experience dry because I neer concern myself with all that techie computing machine material. If I couldn’t acquire into package. how I could advance this plan related to computing machine material. When Jenny working on accounting system. I supposed to delving why there was a batch of bombilation around their merchandise both at the conference and in the imperativeness. Besides. I should seek to work out those bombilatio ns which may go large issues what will face in the hereafter. Besides. there is a addendum. One of my mistake is I ignored the organisation civilization which is representative by Tom. who has immense personality and an unbelievable memory. He used phone calls. unit of ammunitions of golf. and birthday calls to lend personal networking. He had surrounded himself with really similar people like Joe who is one of veterans. They all agree this sort of gross revenues method is successful. My mistake is put new package plan on antonym of our organisation civilization. I didn’t combine new engineering and organization’s tradition together. That’s why people’s responds had been cool. I am to fault for the current province of personal businesss because I didn’t understand good about the undermentioned jobs. First of wholly. as a new promoted frailty president of selling. I didn’t achieve the great support from the best-performing sales representative to put in the new salesforce mechanization package and to utilize it. Although I have showed the booklet to them. I should attach the importance that they didn’t show their involvements really and I shouldn’t see that they will alter their head shortly. I shouldn’t think that they will accept the new salesforce mechanization tool as I. The veterans Joe didn’t like to utilize computing machine and had some bad attitude to me. I shouldn’t see that he will alter his head really promptly. The former frailty president Tom. who is an old-fashion sales representative with a immense personality. contributed a batch in the company’s early growing via personal networking a nd the surrounding co-workers are similar people really. Based on this consideration. I should recognize that it is really difficult to do them alter their head. And. the younger associate Amanda didn’t understand the system really clear. I should see more about this job and seek my best to do her understand the new salesforce mechanization tool clear. As a frailty president of selling. I should do salespeople understand what the new system is clearly. how to utilize it. and seek my best to acquire the support from them. However. I didn’t. If I achieved theirs back up really good. the plan may run better and the state of affairs may be different. What’s more. I made a critical error about Jenny Cantera. the really first IT manager with small experience in my house. I should recognize that she might do some error as a new IT manager with small experience. I shouldn’t swear her that much about the installing skill even though she looks smart and is good at engineering. However. she does non hold a batch of experiences. The accident may go on merely following 2nd. As a frailty president. it’s my mistake to believe a new manus. If I didn’t swear her that much. the state of affairs may be different. However. even though Jenny did her occupation truly good. I made a error on the clip. I shouldn’t allow the installing after three to four hebdomads. If I truly want to do net incomes relay on the new salesforce mechanization package rapidly. I should do the installing finished every bit shortly as possible. I shouldn’t accept this late installing. It is excessively late. My house spent a ample investing on the new package. I truly did a large error on the late installing. In brief. I did two critical errors this clip. I shouldn’t ignore the negative response from the sales representative. I shouldn’t believe the new IT manager that much. If I did better on these points. the state of affairs may be different. A successful plan is non merely trusting on single but besides the other sections of whole organisation. I blamed myself made immense error every bit good as others. There are a twosome of people I want to fault. Firstly. I want to speak about Jenny. I assigned undertaking to Jenny who is first IT manager in our house and had small experience in this place. She can’t give me critical advice and merely followed my measure. When I gave booklet to her. she didn’t do any deep research about new salesforce mechanization tool or halt me and merely told me it will necessitate one hebdomad to put in. She merely obeyed the order and neer thought. Then she postponed put ining my plan which spends ample investing of my house. She increased clip cost. She knew there are buzz exist but she merely ignored them and travel on. Besides. she installed package straightly for the whole system alternatively of making trial. She didn’t prepare plenty for issues round the corner. When she wrote the interface to the HR systems. all database broke lose. She was scrambling to convey it back up. Apparently she neer thought incident will go on. In add-on. I would fault my firm’s salesman. I understand Joe. who is veterans. doesn’t like me since I took his friend Tom’s topographic point and doesn’t agree computing machine can convey his more benefits. But the times are different. The markets were now planetary. When other firm’s sales representative contact abroad clients via IT support. our salesman merely aimed local clients can’t use our client base and convey us profit. We would lose excessively many clients and lose market fight without new engineering. Besides. I will fault the board that merely investing new plan but didn’t support my work really. They had been reasonably easy acceptance new proposal alternatively of cautious consideration. And after that. they should allow other sections corporate my occupation but they did non. A successful new plan demands selling. finance. human resources and accounting departmentsâ⠂¬â„¢ co-ordinate and communicating. non merely one individual.

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Intelligence without representation The WritePass Journal

Intelligence without representation INTRODUCTION Intelligence without representation INTRODUCTIONWhat is Artificial IntelligenceBrooks’ ApproachTruly Intelligent Machine Conclusion ReferencesBibliographyRelated INTRODUCTION Professor Rodney Brooks’ vision is to create a truly intelligent machine without the aid of representation. He argued that when intelligence is approached in an incremental manner, with strict reliance on interfacing to the real world through perception and action, reliance on representation disappears. What is artificial intelligence? What is Brooks’ vision and his approach in achieving this? What constitute a truly intelligent machine? Is Brooks’ approach effective to create machines which are truly intelligent and what obstacles foreseen in his approach? What is Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence, but AI does not have to confine itself to methods that are biologically observable. AI is  a field in computer science seeking to create a computer system capable of sensing the world around it, understanding conversations, learning, reasoning, and reaching decisions, just as would a human. AI is a combination of computer science, physiology, and philosophy. AI is a broad topic, consisting of different fields, from machine vision to expert systems. The element that the fields of AI have in common is the creation of machines that can think. In order to classify machines as thinking, it is necessary to define intelligence. To what degree does intelligence consist of, for example, solving complex problems, or making generalizations and relationships? Research into the areas of learning, of language, and of sensory perception has aided scientists in building intelligent machines. One of the most challenging approaches facing experts is building systems that mimic the behaviour of the human brain, made up of billions of neurons, and arguably the most complex matter in the universe. AI has come a long way from its early roots, driven by dedicated researchers. AI really began to intrigue researchers with the invention of the computer in 1943. In 1950, Alan Turing proposed a test for artificial intelligence in which a human being is asked to talk with an unseen conversant. The tester sends questions to the machine via teletype and reads its answers; if the subject cannot distinguish  whether the conversation is being held with another human being or a machine, then the machine is deemed to have artificial intelligence. No machine has come close to passing this test, and it is unlikely that one will in the near future. Researchers, however, have made progress on specific pieces of the artificial intelligence puzzle, and some of their work has had substantial  benefits. One area of progress is the field of expert systems, or computer systems designed to  reproduce the knowledge base and decision-making techniques used by experts in a given field. Such a system can train workers and assist in decision making. MYCIN, a program developed in 1976 at Stanford University, suggests possible diagnoses for patients with infectious blood diseases, proposes treatments, and explains its reasoning in English. Corporations have used such systems to reduce the labour costs involved in  repetitive calculations. A system used by American Express since November 1988 to advise when to deny credit to a customer saves the company millions of dollars annually. A second area of artificial intelligence research is the field of artificial perception, or computer vision. Computer vision is the ability to recognize patterns in an image and to separate objects from background as quickly as the human brain. In the 1990s military technology initially developed to analyze spy-satellite images found its way into commercial applications, including monitors for assembly lines, digital cameras, and automotive imaging systems. Another pursuit in artificial intelligence research is natural language processing, the ability to interpret and generate human languages. In this area, as in others related to artificial intelligence research, commercial applications have been delayed as improvements in hardware- the computing power of the machines themselves- have not kept pace with the increasing complexity of software. The field of neural networks seeks to reproduce the architecture of the brain- billions of connected nerve cells- by joining a large number of computer processors through a technique known as parallel processing. A fuzzy systems is a  subset of artificial intelligence research based on the assumption that the world encountered by humans is  filled with approximate rather than precise information. Interest in the field has been particularly strong in Japan, where fuzzy systems have been used in  different applications, from operating subway cars to guiding the sale of securities. Some theorists argue that the technical obstacles to artificial intelligence, while large, are not  attainable. A number of computer experts, philosophers and futurists have speculated on the ethical and spiritual challenges facing society when artificial intelligent machines begin to  mimic human personality traits, including memory, emotion, and consciousness. Brooks’ vision Professor Rodney Brooks stated in his report his approach of creating artificial intelligence as [1]: We must incrementally build up the capabilities of intelligent systems, having complete systems at each step of the way and thus automatically ensure that the pieces and their interfaces are valid. At each step we should build complete intelligent systems that we let loose in the real world with real sensing and real action. Anything less provides a candidate with which we can delude ourselves. He backed his approach by claiming to have [1] built series of autonomous mobile robots following this approach and made mention to have reached an unexpected conclusion (C) and have a rather radical hypothesis (H). (C)  Ã‚   When we examine very simple level intelligence we find that explicit representations and models of the world simply get in the way. It turns out to be better to use the world as its own model. (H)  Ã‚  Ã‚   Representation is the wrong unit of abstraction in building the bulkiest parts of intelligent systems. Brooks’ Approach Incremental Intelligence Brooks stated in his desire to build completely autonomous mobile agents that co-exist in the world with humans and they shall be seen by human beings as intelligent beings in their own right. He called such agents Creatures. He declared this as his intellectual motivation however, immediately declared his non-particular interest in demonstrating how human beings work. Having considered the parable of the AF researchers, he convinces himself to tread carefully in the endeavour to avoid some nasty pitfalls. He considered the problem of building these Creatures as an engineering problem. He then stated some of the requirements he needed in order to build these Creatures as: A Creature must cope appropriately and in a timely fashion with changes in its dynamic environment. A Creature should be robust with respect to its environment; minor changes in the properties of the world should not lead to total collapse of the Creatures behaviour; rather one should expect only a gradual change in capabilities of the Creature as the environment changes more and more. A Creature should be able to maintain multiple goals and, depending on the circumstances it finds itself in, change which particular goals it is actively pursuing; thus it can both adapt to surroundings and capitalize on fortuitous circumstances. A Creature should do something in the world; it should have some purpose in being. Having set out all the requirements he needed to build the Creature, he then considered some of the valid engineering approaches needed in achieving these requirements. He stated that it is [1] necessary to decompose a complex system into parts, build the parts, then interface them into a complete system. Decomposition by function Traditionally, the notion of intelligent systems has been of a central system with perceptual modules as inputs and action modules as outputs. The perceptual modules deliver a symbolic description of the world and the action modules take a symbolic description of desired actions and make sure they happen in the world. This makes the central system a symbolic information processor. Brooks argued that the central system be decomposed into smaller pieces. He also stressed that when researchers working on a particular module get to choose both the inputs and the outputs that specify the module requirements he believe there is little chance the work they do will fit into a complete intelligent system. He made mention of a bug in the functional decomposition approach which is hard to fix and admitted the need of a long chain of modules to connect perception to action. He rounded up decomposition by function saying these modules must be built first in order to test any of them but emphasis that until realistic modules are built it is highly unlikely that they can predict exactly what modules will be need or what interfaces the Creatures will need. Decomposition by activity This is an alternative decomposition aforementioned which makes no distinction between peripheral systems, such as vision and central systems. Rather the fundamental slicing up of an intelligent system is in the orthogonal direction dividing it into activity producing subsystems. Each activity or behaviour producing system individually connects sensing to action. This activity producing system is referred to as layer. An activity is said to be a pattern of interactions with the world. Another name for these activities is said to be skill. The word activity was chosen however, because the layers must decide when to act for themselves, not by some subroutine to be invoked at the beck and call of some other later. Brooks gave an advantage of this approach as giving an incremental path from very simple systems to complex autonomous intelligent systems. He stressed the necessity of building one small piece at each step of the way and interfacing it to an existing, working, complete intelligence. No Representation versus No Central Representation Another Brooks’ approach is to eliminate the idea of having a central representation or central system. He said and I quote â€Å"Each activity producing layer connects perception to action directly. It is only the observer of the Creature who imputes a central representation or central control. The Creature itself has none; it is a collection of competing behaviours. Out of the local chaos of their interactions there emerges, in the eye of an observer, a coherent pattern of behaviour. There is no central purposeful locus of control.†Ã‚   He claimed however, that there need be no explicit representation of either the world or the intentions of the system to generate intelligent behaviours for a Creature. He acknowledged the fact that an extremist might say that his approach do have representations however, swiftly defended his approach by claiming that are just explicit. He differentiates his approach from the standard representation by claiming; No variables need instantiation in reasoning processes. No rules which need to be selected through pattern matching. No choice to be made. To a large extent the state of the world determines the action of the Creature. The methodology, in practice In order for Brooks to build systems based on activity decomposition so that they are truly robust he stated that they must follow a careful methodology. Methodological maxims First, it is vitally important to test the Creatures they build in the real world; i.e., in the same world that we humans inhabit. He also point out that it is disastrous to fall into the temptation of testing them in a simplified world first, even with the best intentions of later transferring activity to an unsimplified world. With a simplified world (matte painted walls, rectangular vertices everywhere, colour blocks as the only obstacles) it is very easy to accidentally build a submodule of the system which happens to rely on some of those simplified properties. This reliance can then easily be reflected in the requirements on the interfaces between that submodule and others. Second, as each layer is built it must be tested extensively in the real world. The system must interact with the real world over extended periods. Its behaviour must be observed and be carefully and thoroughly debugged. When a second layer is added to an existing layer there are three potential sources of bugs: the first layer, the second layer, or the interaction of the two layers. Eliminating the first of this source of bugs as a possibility makes finding bugs much easier. Furthermore, there is only one thing possible to vary in order to fix the bugs- the second layer. Truly Intelligent Machine Conclusion References [1] Brooks, R. (1991). Intelligence without representation. Artificial Intelligence 47 , 139-159. Bibliography Kurzweil, Ray.  The Age of Spiritual Machines.  New York: Viking, 1999. Partridge, Derek.  A New Guide to Artificial Intelligence.  Norwood, N.J.: Ablex, 1991. Shapiro, Stuart C., ed.  Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence.  2d ed. New York: Wiley, 1992. Turbam, Efraim.  Expert Systems and Applied Artificial Intelligence.  New York: MacMillan, 1992. answers.com/topic/artificial-intelligence